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Translation of Poetry and Short Stories by Jose Marti and Octavio Robleto. by Daniel Bruno

Posted on Friday, 27th January 2012 @ 12:49 AM by Text Size A | A | A

 

Jose Marti XLVI

 

Disgorge, my heart, your woe

Whither descried it shall be not

By morgue, and to be not,

Wherefore other sorrow.

 

I adore you, verse beloved

Because when I endure my soul

Onerous and battered

I render my burdens to you.

 

You abide me, you bestow

In your loving lap,

All of my afflictive love,

All of my yearnings and affronts.

 

You, that I would in calmness

Love and excell, accede

To muddling your currents

With all that oppresses my soul.

 

You, that I would crisscross furious

The earth, and without hatred, and pure,

You drag yourself, pale and hearty,

My loving companion.

 

My life consigns itself thus

To a sky clear and cloudless,

And you bear my burden

With your divine patience.

 

And because my cruel custom

Of relying on you leads you astray

From your consecrated harmony

And natural gentleness;

 

Because my sorrows I heave

Upon your bosom and it they pummel,

And your current they ferment,

Over here it is livid, over there it is red,

 

White over there as if death,

Now you attack and rumble,

Now you creak from the weight

Of hurt greater than yourself puissant,

 

Will it be incumbent,

As from a vile heart I am counseled,

To abandon to oblivion

He who never forsakes me?

 

 

 

 

Verse, we are told of one God,

To whom the deceased are bound:

Verse, together we are damned,

Or together we shall overcome!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

XXXIX

 

 

 

Cultivo una rosa blanca

En julio como en enero

Para el amigo sincero

Que me da su mano franca.

 

 

I nurture a white rose

In June as well as in January

For that true friend

Who offers me his honest hand.

 

Y para el cruel que me arranca

El corazon con que vivo,

Cardo ni oruga cultivo;

Cultivo la rosa blanca.

 

And for the mean spirit who tears out

The heart with which I live,

I cultivate neither thistle nor worms;

I nurture a white rose.

 

 

 

 

THE HUNTER AND THE PIGEON

 

( From Cuentos de Verdad y Mentira by  Octavio Robleto.    Nicaragua 1988)

 

 

There was once a hunter who was on his way out of the house when he shot a pigeon, but the bullet only wounded the animal’s thiegh bones.  The hunter reset the pigeon’s bones with a piece of wax, leaving the animal of God in the field, when he heard the animal wailing, addressing the hunter like this:

“…but the sun heats the stone so it has more power.   The sun heats the stone, the stone melts the wax and burns my leg.  But the cloud blocks the sun so it has more power.  The cloud blocks the sun, the sun heats the stone, the stone melts the wax and burns my leg….”

“… But the wind scatters the cloud so it has more power.       The wind scatters the cloud, the cloud blocks the sun, the sun heats the stone, the stone melts the wax and burns my leg.  But fire chars the mountain so it has more power.  Fire chars  mountain, mountain checks wind, wind scatters cloud, cloud blocks sun, sun heats stone that melts wax and burns my leg…”

The pigeon wailed on until its death, forever asking who had the most power.

And the hunter?

 

GLOSSARIOS

 

HONESTO  falso cognado. Decoroso, razonable, chaste 1220  delat honestus

HUMANO fin del siglo xii. del lat. humanus;relative al hombre

IGNORAR, 1438. delat. ignorare `no saber’ neg. de la raiz (g)noscere ‘saber’

ILUSTRADO made clear by example;informed, learned

IMPONERSE de ponere

INEDITO  ineditus, neg. de editus, participio de edere

INQUITUDE 1140.delat. quietus,a,um  tranquilo,apacible; participio de quiescere

INTEGRAL 1223. entero delat. integer

INTERVENIR 1438. delat. venire

INTOXICADO tosigo,veneno 1251. toxicum, del gr. toxikon, pharmakon. veneno para flechas

INTRODUCIR de adducere,1440

INVERTIR 950. delat. vertere  girar, dar vuelta

JORNADA 1220 tomado de otra lengua romance. procedente de diurnus

LABOR 1030. delat. labor,oris

LECTURA de leer 1140 legere

LOCAL 1490 de locus

REBANAR 1490 derivado por rabano

REAL 1607 delat. realis

ENTERAR delat integer

BREGAR 1423 del Gotico brikan, romper

BISAGRA de origen incierto

BIZCOCHO 1260 del antiguo participio biscocho`cocido dos vezes’ bis coctus

MATIZ de origen incierto

LOMA 969 parte inferior de la espalda  delat. lumbus

PROCESAR de proceder 1438 procedere `adelantar’

BURLAR origen desconocido

LLAMAR 1140 de clamare-gritar,clamar

MAESTRO 993 delat magister

MADRUGAR maturare

CONVOY de fr. convoi

COMPROMISO meter,1140 delat. mittere-enviar,soltar

MURCIELAGO 1251 mur ciego — raton ceigo

ENCIAS 1251 delat gingeva

MUJER mulher(port) 1113 de mulier

MORO 1091 maurus  habitante de NE Africa ss. xii

MORAR 1140 de morari–permanecer

ALQUILER 1490 del arabe kira; deriv. alquilar 1251

ALMORAVID 1095 del. ar. murabit-devoto

ALMA s. xi delat. anima-aire,aliento

AFRODISIACO 1867 del. gr. aphrodisiakos; de aphrodite

AGUANTAR 1587 del it. agguantare

AZUCAR s.xiii del ar. sukkar

BARBA 1140 delat barba

RENCILLA quarrel,grudge

 

 

 

 

When You are an Old Woman

 

When you are an old woman,

,take this book

and read it without haste.  Dream in the sweetness

of your eyes of yore and their shades of the past.

 

How many have loved your erstwhile sweet grace and beauty

with genuine or untrue love.  But only one has loved your wandering soul and the twist of your fickle face.

 

So bend yourself over that coal stove and whisper to yourself

Love

and you hide your tears in a patch of stars.

 

 

 

FOR ANDREA

 

The caterpiller is a tireless worker,ruining

hundereds of leaves with its ceaseless appetite.

The tree is compassionate of its blindness and offers its leaves to help it cross the street.

It leaves a trail of hollow in its wake just like the paint of this postcard.

The butterfly, on the other hand, leaps like a birth arrow

from its cacoon at the moment of its transfiguration, opening the eyespots of its wings to the light

but perhaps not the eyes, because it too is blind

It dances with its artistic wings

like a gypsy to the beat of Hungarian violins

and never visits the same flower twice

The butterfly cannot remember that it was once a caterpiller

just as the caterpiller cannot guess that it will be a butterfly

because the extremes of the same being do not meet.

 

 

T.V.

 

Like primitives around the fire the herd disperses

on the night of the fifty stars, gathered around the color television.

Only bodies will survive that flame

In each home a family concentrates on fixing glazened eyes

on the small oven where dreams are creamated

The antiseptic Pandora,s box

makes offerings to the extinction of desire

simple consumer objects

instead of symbols, brand names

Men and women reduced by the showman to their earliest infancy

Elderly women conferred with infantil indignity

They play on the screen emphasizing unsteady expressions

like expressions at the time of burning

 

 

Discontinuos Territoriality

 

In the Andian sphere the concept of territoriality had peculiarities which, for now, we cannot explain, bnut manifest themselves in several documents.

The ideas most difficult to understand and the least studied are those of space and territory.  According to Godelier, “territory” refers to that portion of nature and land where permanent material conditions for society’s subsistance could be found.  A terrirory’s forms of property are an essential part of what we call the economic structure of a society and constitute the “legal” or at least “legitimate” condition for access to resources and the means of production.

In some documents we find information about scattered and discontinuous tenency in the Indian communes, or the pachacca, cutting across small farms of some of the Indian communes

but on land belonging to others and in the same microclimate, without any explanation for these circumstances.

The most noticable territorial discontinuity is found in Cajamarca, on a sleepless visit to this region.  That is where the pachaca and the guaranga had small farms scattered through lands of other Indian communes, in an apparantly randem fashon, and we are unable to find a reason or motive for this.

Path(1980), in this study of Andean subsistence strategy, has investigated in Cuyo-Cuyo (Sandia, Puno) and finds that the traditional agricultural system was mostly concerned with minimizing risks so as to secure the food supply.

 

Rapid Transit

They use to whisper that Luisita was wild and went to wild parties, a brazen kid who       ,and everyone assured me that she would drink like a bathtub.  If she woke up pale, if she nodded or slept in class it was because she stayed up to much.  On some afternoons she would be seen with football players in their jollopies, or with guys from outside of school who would pick her up in fancy new convertibles, and my jealous imagination would accompany them untill they reached the misterious roadhouses at the edge of the sea,inclining me to beleive the gossip which, in more sober moments, I attributed to envy.  I remebered the scandle of the year, especially the one about the mixed school, situated near our apartment building on Van Ness Ave., near the pine groves of the Presidio and the Gold port bay, where for some inexcusable carelessness of the        ,-my informant’s phrase-,resulted in 42 people being interested in one semester, or of a famous dance that was held in the greek theatre of the U. of California, on a full moon, in which male and female university students, none other than Fulana and Sutana of San Francisco high society, did greek dances in the nude.  But Luisita Donahue was too personal, I would think as I calmed myself down, too much herself, to be destined for trivial promiscuity.  I could have demonstrated it, but…

 

 

 

 

 

 

The year 1492 symbolizes the dawning of a global world perspective and may well be considered the birth of the modern age.  This exposition offers a panorama of visual art at the turn of the fifteenth century, when European explorers forged new ties between continents – forever changing the perception of culture.

The Age of Exploration was as remarkable for the achievements in art and craftsmanship as for the discoveries in the New World.  The more than 600 works of painting, sculpture, printed matter and drawings, maps, scientific instruments and objects of decorative art from five continents, all on display here, reflect the artistic power of this extraordinary historical epoch.

The exhibition is divided into three parts: the first, titled ” Europe and the Mediterranean World,” focuses on the Mediterranean Basin, traditional birthplace of European civilization and gateway to Asia.  It offers a window on the artistic world of Portugal, Spain, Italy, West Africa and the Islamic  realm.  By way of sculpture, it offers a look in on the most powerful intellectual and spiritual currents of the period.

The second part: ” To Catay,” arrays the visual arts of the major civilizations of the Far-East, which in 1492 were among the most ancient, wealthiest and technologically advanced in the world.  The order in which these are shown follows the itinerary of the western maritime rute which Columbus and his patrons had hoped to explore in 1492, via Japan, Korea, China and India.

The third part,”The Americas,” deals with the most   important     societies which flourished in the New World of the fifteenth century and their elaborate belief systems as reflected in the works of art these societies created.  This part offers a rich mosaic of different cultures, from the vast empires of the Aztecs and Incas, to the small states of The Antilles, in what is now the southeastern U.S., Costa Rica and Columbia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metro de un Vistazo

 

 

Las entradas a las estaciones de riel son indicadas por altos marrones pilares con la letra “M” pintada en sus caras.  Franjas coloradas en los pilares indican las lineas (Roja, Naranja, Azul, Verde y Amarilla) que pasan por esa estacion.

El Aeropuerto Nacional de Washington es ubicada cercana a las lineas de metro.  Para ir al aeropuerto Washington Dulles Internacional (a 26 millas del centro de Washington), coga el bus Washington Dulles Flyer Express, lo cual corre entre la estacion West Falls Church (Linea Naranja) y Dulles. Los buses corren  los siete dias a la  semana a intervalos varioados.  El viaje ( de unos 25 minutos) cuesta $5.00 de ida; ninos de 6 anos y menor no pagan.

Para mas informacion cerca de este servicio particular, llame al Washington Flyer Ground Transportation System al 703-685-1400.

Los precios de Metro valian de acuerdo con la distancia que usted desee viajar.  El tarifa basica es de U.S. $1.00 por el bus y el Metro.  El tarifa basica por un viaje de ida es $2.85.  Sin embargo, la mayoria de viajes desde el centro a otro punto del centro son de un dollar.  Se recomienda que tenga cambio exacto y

billetes planos de un dollar que no esten arrugados cuando comprando boletos en las estaciones de Metro o en los buses.

Se vende los boletos en los distribuidores automaticos ubicados en cada estacion de Metro.  Se acepta solamente dinero estadounidense, en moneda o en billetes de $1.00 o $5.00.  Las maquinas devuelven una cantidad limitada de cambio y algunas estaciones tienen maquinas que aceptan billetes de hasta $10.00 y $20.00.  Todos deben tener un boleto.

Despues de que usted compre su boleto, lleveselo a la barrera y pongalo en la ranura.  Cuando la barrera se abra, camine para adelante y recupere el boleto, lo cual se devuelve automaticamente.  Al salir de la estacion, las computadoras de barrera restan automaticamente el precio del viaje suyo y devuelven el boleto si todavia tenga valor.  En caso que usted se equivoce en cuanto a la cantidad correcta de dinero requerido para proceder a su destinacion, la computadora le indicara a usted y devolver el boleto.  Para aumentar el valor del boleto, lleveselo a una de las maquinas “addfare,” ubicadas cercana a las barreras de salida.

 

Transformations

 

Once upon a time a man prayed earnestly to God that he  transform him into a horse without losing his powers of mind.

And God granted him his request.

Time passed and one night as the moon shown fully up above, the horse, dissatisfied, prayed to God with the same earnestness, but this time to be transformed into a bird.

And God granted him his request.

More time passed but the bird also prayed, with great earnestness, to be transformed into a fish.

And God granted him his request.

One day the fish, from the bottom of the ocean, prayed once again, with great earnestness, to become a man once again.

And God granted him his request.

And the man prayed once again, but this time his earnestness was no more.

 

 

 

 

Zapatos

En un commercial para “Stride Right”, vemos ninos jugando y divertiendose, mientras que oimos una voz que dice “Stride Right…designs shoes for the way a kid grows” y “Stride Right…for that first step.” (Stride Right…disena zapatos de acuerdo con como crecen los ninos” y Stride Right…por ese primer paso).  El commercial aprovecha imagenes de ninos lindos para vender sus productos, representandose para infundir una aura de innocencia.  Jack Soloman habla de esto empezando en la pagina 45, donde explica como figura el mito de la ninez con nuestros deseos de comprar.

Corte de pelo.

En este commercial breve, vemos a un tipo “typico” pidiendo un “hot dog” con mostaza.  El vendedor ambulante le responda, en forma brusca, que hay de salsa de tomate y de “relish,”

pero no de mostaza, y que se large si no le gusta.  Entonces una voz nos dice:”Un corte de pelo bueno es un corte de pelo bueno,” y el commercial nos deja con “solamente $10.00” en la pantalla.    Esta bien, pero que tiene que ver ase escena con un cort de pelo?  Es sencillo:  sin habernos dado ni siquera una mota de informacion en cuanto a su producto, nos hacen creer que cuando pedimos algo de ellos, simpre nos lo van a dar.  Como dice Jack Soloman en la pagina 60, la palabra es “manipulacion.”

Pizza

El senor Soloman tambien nos cuenta de los “teenage fantasy groups of hip and happy adolescents singing, dancing and cavorting together.(p.67).  Este es el tipo de escena que vemos en este anuncio para Pizza Hut, en lo qual oimos “come on Pizza Hut!” repetido 20 veces.  Obviamente, este anuncio tiene los adolescentes como su objetivo.  Esta disenado para que ellos pidan y suplicen sus parientes por un “Pizza Hut” pizza, pero lo que sucede es que ellos estan pidiendo, sin darse cuenta, por esos “tiempos buenos” que ven en los ALREDEDORES de la pizza.      Silenciadores

Este anuncio muy corto nos muestra un actor vestido en ropa de mechanico, con una cara seria y sincera.  Dice,”Nobody beats Midas” (Nadie gana a Midas).  Asi de simple, y se acaba el anuncio.  Supongo que nos esperan que ya sabemos el resto del dialogo, por haberlo oido  en anuncios mas largos, a traves de anos.  El mensaje semiotico es que ya que conecemos este “mechanico” hace tantos anos, no nos tiene que decir nada;confiamos en el como si fuera el mechanico favorito de nuestro barrio

.

 

Un punto interesante que planteo el autor fue en cuanto a la traduccion de selecciones literarios escritos en idioma local o coloquial.  Resulta que el autor trata de reproducir el mismo flavor y sentido de la version original.  Segun Rebassa, “la transferencia de idioma local o regional a otro idioma, por lo tanto, tiene que considerarse una imposibilidad de la traduccion.”  (p.24 penultimo parrafo).  Yo dudo que sea imposible lograr.  Primeramente , cuando se trata de palabras escritas, la complexidad ya ha dismiuido tremendamente, ya que los probllemas de lenguaje oral desaparecen al ponerlo en forma escrita.  Lo unico que nos queda es el syntaxis y vocabulario del hablante.  Atraves de la forma de expresarse del mismo, el lector se da cuenta de los aspectos personales y educativos del mismo hablante, y si analizamos las palabras en el contexto de Huckleberry Finn, notamos una reproduccion fina de lenguaje coloquial, traducido, o lo que fuera, a la palabra escrita.  Vemos que Twain ha utilizado, con mucho exito, palabras rompidas y fracasadas, con todo tipo de arreglo ortografico para reproducir el muy mal y no-educado hablar de las caracteres en la novela.  Mantengo que aunque sea un trabajo arduoso, si es posible reprducir esto atravez de un espanol comparable en falta de preparacion escolar.

 

 

The year 1492 symbolizes the dawning of a global world perspective and may well be considered the birth of the modern age.  This exposition offers a panorama of visual art at the turn of the fifteenth century, when European explorers forged new ties between continents – forever changing the perception of culture.

The Age of Exploration was as remarkable for the achievements in art and craftsmanship as for the discoveries in the New World.  The more than 600 works of painting, sculpture, printed matter and drawings, maps, scientific instruments and objects of decorative art from five continents, all on display here, reflect the artistic power of this extraordinary historical epoch.

The exhibition is divided into three parts: the first, titled ” Europe and the Mediterranean World,” focuses on the Mediterranean Basin, traditional birthplace of European civilization and gateway to Asia.  It offers a window on the artistic world of Portugal, Spain, Italy, West Africa and the Islamic  realm.  By way of sculpture, it offers a look in on the most powerful intellectual and spiritual currents of the period.

The second part: ” To Catay,” arrays the visual arts of the major civilizations of the Far-East, which in 1492 were among the most ancient, wealthiest and technologically advanced in the world.  The order in which these are shown follows the itinerary of the western maritime rute which Columbus and his patrons had hoped to explore in 1492, via Japan, Korea, China and India.

The third part,”The Americas,” deals with the most important

 

 

Una Calle

 

A town street – be it ordinary and unheeded – whatever its name and whatever city it belongs to…yet for someone during a particular time, the mystery of human nature can be the very center of the universe.

Let’s take a street, for example, scarcely one block long.  It is without trees, businesses or parked cars. A string of single story houses, some with their windows out of square,

lines the street.  Narrow sidewalks and broken or missing pavement stones are the order of the day.  Dead silence surrounds this place save for the isolated moments at sundown when children stretch their bodies after a dull day at school and youthful shouts and cries may be heard until nighttime descends upon all.

Yes, a street where neighbors know each other by sight and even greet each other in subdued hushed tones, and where everything is routine.  This routine is so comprehensive that nothing outside of it may occur; the only visible spectacle is a wrapper or empty cigarette pack blowing about like playthings in an indifferent wind.

And that place can be, with no one in particular to take credit, the site of a capital experience.  And if that street is dark in and of itself, it is because destiny,as it were, wanted it that way and wanted – the experience, all of it shattered glass, to shine so as to never be forgotten…never be forgotten even though it would be impossible to recount or describe because the words would burst forth and they, too, would shatter.

The most profound human experiences- those that leave a mark, scar or even an adornment in their wake – inhabit, sometimes, places one would least expect to find them – like a nameless street where, seemingly, nothing ever happens at all.

U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

 

Explicado sencillamente, el INS se encarga de supervisar a las personas, tanto extranjeras como ciudadanas, que entran a los Estados Unidos.  Busque los avisos a fin de que usted sepa en cual fila debe colocarse.  Ciudadanos estadounidenses estan apartes de las las demas.  Un funcionario del INS le dara la bienvenida e inspecinara sus documentos y pasaporte.  A la vez, el funcionario puede preguntarle a Ud. para informarse en cuanto al proposito y la duracion de la visita. Por lo general, si uno tenga documentacion en orden, no hay que esperar mucho en el INS.    A caso que el INS requiera mas informacion, o que haya algun problema con su documentacion, Ud. tendra que ir al “secondary area” para mas amplia verificacion de los documentos.

La Aduana de los E.E.U.U.

Despues de haber pasado por la Inmigracion, Ud. seguira adelante a la sala principal (La Aduana).  Los numeros de su linea area y de su vuelo estaran inscritos en una lista encima del aparato donde se reclama equipaje.  Busque el aparato particular asignado a su vuelo.  Por las paredes Ud. va a ver carretillas para cargar equipaje.  No se cobra por usarlas.

Cuando Ud. reclama su equipaje lea los avisos rojos y verdes, ubicados en la area de Aduanas.  La informacion escrita en esos avisos le ayudara en decidir si debe chequar con la estacion aduanera de inspecion antes de proceder a la salida.

Cada residente de los E.E.U.U. puede traer de vuelta hasta U.S.$400.00 de mercancias imponibles sin tener que pagar impuestos.  Si Ud. regrese desde uno de los paises “Caribbean Basin beneficiary,” puede traer de vuelta hasta U.S.$600.00.  En caso que Ud. vuelva desde los U.S. Virgin Islands, puede traer hasta U.S.$1,200.00 sin pagar impuestos.

Visitantes extranjeros pueden traer hasta U.S.$100.00 de mercancias imponibles como regalos.  Todas las exenciones tienen limitaciones en liqor y tabaco. Tambien hay ceirtas regulaciones de otras agencias estadounidenses que puedan ver con la importacion de particulares articulos.  Algunos articulos son estrictamente prohibidos.  Para mas informacion, pongase en contacto con los U.S. Customs Service al 202-566-8195.

Mientras que Ud. este en la area de Aduanas, sus funcionarios haran sus rondas en medio de los pasajeros.  Un funcionario puede acarcarse a Ud. y pedir informacion.  Se solicita su colaboracion con ellos para que le puedan despachar su progreso.  Si Ud. debe pagar impuesto por alguna mercancia, vayase a la estacion aduanera de inspecion, donde le calcularan el impuesto.  El funcionario le dirigira a la cajera donde paga.  El pago debe ser moneda estadounidense en effectivo, cheque personal o del gobierno, giro postal, o cheque de viajero (si la vuelta sea U.S.$50.00 o menos.)  Tambien se acepta las tarjetas de credito Visa, Mastercard y Discover.

A caso que el funcionario no le dice nada a Ud, debe seguir adelante hasta el punto de declaracion y entregar su declaracion a la puerta.

 

Farewell to the Watermelon

In these times of strong leanings towards claim making, it is appropriate that we dedicata a column expressing our gratitude and admiration for the watermelon, which, with the arrival of fall, is vanishing from Chilean dinner tables.  I don’t remember if Neruda consecrated this delicious fruit in his Odas Elementales.  If not, it would be worthwhile if another great poet would assure it a place in          . We, being far removed from such poetic loftiness, yet inspired by a remarkable dream we had one night, want to pay simple homage to this green esferoid on the occasion of its annual departure.  Perhaps we were moved by the exuberant fantasy of “vogue” literature or by avante-garde painting, in which Newton’s laws are defied as objects glide through the air.  We saw hundreds of watermelons floating effortlessly in the surrounding atmosphere as if on board a space ship.  They were uneasy to clutch, unlike the facil grip they have in the supermarket.  It was simply marvelous.

Because of its proportions, the watermelon would seem to be an extinct species, survivor of an ancient time when it served as sustenance to primitive man.  In these times of miniatures, aerobic exercise and casual clothes, the watermelon has become “demodee.”  Nor does it seem to be the watermelon we knew in our childhood, the type they used to sell pierced in the middle by a knife so as to demonstrate its superior red pulp.  Watermelons have since become more sofisticated but they are always       and full of seeds, an unmistakable sign of fertility.  They are not pierced anymore because the “risk” of that has diminished.  Now they almost come with warranties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ECOLOGY

 

Felling of centuries old Poplar trees called affront to envirnment.

The Ecological Association of La Rioja has called the “destruction and mutilation” of nearly century old White Poplars in the locality of Urunela an “envirnmental affront”.  The felling of the trees, some of which were two meters wide and almost thirty meters tall, was ordered by the Council of Public Works of the said locality.  According to the Association, the ancient tree tops, with an abundance of flora and fauna, “have been cut down leaving only the tree trunks and the resultant foilage and the side of the road.”  The ecologists from La Rioja added that in order to prevent this from happening again, and “to compensate for the lack of initiative on the part of the local Administration”, a campaign will be started to protect the great trees.  As part of this effort, a study will be will be conducted proposing to the regional government that “these great natural monuments”be saved.

A botanical gardin to be Europe’s largest, with a surface area to be three times that of Madrid’s Retiro park, will be constructed in Alcala de Henares under a project conducted by its famed university.  It will occupy 250 hecteres and will extend the length and width of the current university campus.

 

 

Yo, la peor de toda

 

One of the enigmas that remains unsolved is the hidden motive behind the theme and proportions of her work: half of it was courtesan poetry and her love poems number about fifty, including some of her best creations.  What was the genuine nature of the so-called erotc inclinations of Sor Juana?  In the Western tradition of poetry there was a real love cult, which had its own matrices in Hispanic literature.  And out of this literary current Sor Juana came to be, whose religous calling had dubious formation.  Sor Juana participated in social events of the court as well as social gatherings in the convent, and it comes as no surprise that the themes-or assignment- by which she was inspired came out of the fashionable court.  This, taken into account with the above, the so-called “erotic fantssy” of Sor Juana, originated, according to Octavio Paz, from “an almost completely imaginary life,” “without lovers but with love,” he adds, clarifying his point.

 

 

GLOSSARIOS

 

HONESTO  falso cognado. Decoroso, razonable, chaste 1220  delat honestus

HUMANO fin del siglo xii. del lat. humanus;relative al hombre

IGNORAR, 1438. delat. ignorare `no saber’ neg. de la raiz (g)noscere ‘saber’

ILUSTRADO made clear by example;informed, learned

IMPONERSE de ponere

INEDITO  ineditus, neg. de editus, participio de edere

INQUITUDE 1140.delat. quietus,a,um  tranquilo,apacible; participio de quiescere

INTEGRAL 1223. entero delat. integer

INTERVENIR 1438. delat. venire

INTOXICADO tosigo,veneno 1251. toxicum, del gr. toxikon, pharmakon. veneno para flechas

INTRODUCIR de adducere,1440

INVERTIR 950. delat. vertere  girar, dar vuelta

JORNADA 1220 tomado de otra lengua romance. procedente de diurnus

LABOR 1030. delat. labor,oris

LECTURA de leer 1140 legere

LOCAL 1490 de locus

REBANAR 1490 derivado por rabano

REAL 1607 delat. realis

ENTERAR delat integer

BREGAR 1423 del Gotico brikan, romper

BISAGRA de origen incierto

BIZCOCHO 1260 del antiguo participio biscocho`cocido dos vezes’ bis coctus

MATIZ de origen incierto

LOMA 969 parte inferior de la espalda  delat. lumbus

PROCESAR de proceder 1438 procedere `adelantar’

BURLAR origen desconocido

LLAMAR 1140 de clamare-gritar,clamar

MAESTRO 993 delat magister

MADRUGAR maturare

CONVOY de fr. convoi

COMPROMISO meter,1140 delat. mittere-enviar,soltar

MURCIELAGO 1251 mur ciego — raton ceigo

ENCIAS 1251 delat gingeva

MUJER mulher(port) 1113 de mulier

MORO 1091 maurus  habitante de NE Africa ss. xii

MORAR 1140 de morari–permanecer

ALQUILER 1490 del arabe kira; deriv. alquilar 1251

ALMORAVID 1095 del. ar. murabit-devoto

ALMA s. xi delat. anima-aire,aliento

AFRODISIACO 1867 del. gr. aphrodisiakos; de aphrodite

AGUANTAR 1587 del it. agguantare

AZUCAR s.xiii del ar. sukkar

BARBA 1140 delat barba

RENCILLA quarrel,grudge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

yacer   to lie down

rajar   to split

pregonar   proclaim

alargar   lengthen

arreciar   strengthen

restaurar   restore

codicia   greed

rebosar   overflow, brim

otorgar   authorize

capilla   chapel

recelar   suspect

caliza   limestone

paliza   beating

bendito   blessed

necia   silly, stubborn

penitencia   penance

excomulgar   excommunicate

asa, manija   handle

asar   roast

regazo   lap

pujanza   vigour

plegaria   prayer

verter   pour

agobiar   oppress

pestana   eyelash

 

 

sobaco   armpit

parpado   eyelid

esculpir   to carve

labrado   carved

acudir   attend

abarcar   include, compromise

abadia   abbey

preponderante  preponderant

aldea   hamlet

constar   to be clear, evident

cabalgar   to ride

prender   capture

manto   robe

menear   move, shake

encoger   shrink

amparar   protect

conde   earl

hincarse (de rodillas)   kneel

rezar   pray

engendrar   breed

encomiar, alabar   praise

santiguar   cross oneself

celada   ambush, ruse

espada   sword

botin, despojo   booty

acometer   attack

 

 

empujon   shove

porfiar   persist, argue

velar   guard by night

mansedumbre   gentleness

ventero   innkeeper

encaminar   direct

sosegar   calm

menester   necessary

adarga   shield

osar   to dare

sandez   foolishness

labrador   farmer

escudero  squire

malbaratar   undersell

menguar   reduce

aspa   crosspiece

desahuciar   evict

tripa   intestine

canalla   riffraff

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLOSSARIOS

ACATAR  to respect, obey

AGREGAR to add, gather, collect

ACEITUNA olive

DESAHUCIAR to evict, dismiss

MORELAJE

DIRIGIRSE to direct

PARADOJA paradox

DERRITIR fuse, melt, thaw

SACRILEGIO scriledge

LETRERO sign

BLASFEMAR blasfemize

DEMORAR delay

HUNDIR sink, submerge, founder

PADECER suffer, be subjected to

GRACIOSO funny

CANGREJO crab

RINCOR

CORAZONADA hunch

ESTIRAR stretch

DEMORRAR delay

DESPACHAR dispatch, get proptly done

AMARRAR tie

AMARAR alight on water

OJALA del arabe allah

CHOQUEZUELA kneecap

ESPANTOSO horrible

CIGUENAL crankshaft

CIGUENA stork

ALEGAR allege

APRESTAR prepare

CENTENAR hundred

REPLIEGUE fold, doble fold, falling back

SECUELA sequel, consequence

CARROZA float, awning, stately coach

FISCO state treasury

DORSO back of a thing

YERNO son in law

NUERA daghter in law

HIJASTRO stepson

DEVENGADO drawn on interest

CARIDAD charity

ACAPITE separate paragraph

AUSPIADO sponsered

DERRAMAR spill, shed, run over

PIMPON

DISFRAZAR disguise

GORRIONsparrow

GRANJA dairy farm

TAZON bowl

JORNAL daywages

DESCALZO barefoot

DESAFIOS challenge,rivalry

PRESERVATIVOS preservatives

RECALCAR emphasize, cram together

CANSANCIO fatigue

PROVECHO

ESTRECHE

SACIEDAD

PRIMOGENITURA

INGENTE

JUBILAR

RECLUTA

ABARCAR

PARTIDARIO

COMULGAR

ANIMADVERSION

DESBOCAR

UNCIAR

TARJA

TRAJINE

PAJUZA

ACOJAR

ARRASAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

RIMA    sonido de iguldad que tienen dos o mas versos al partir de la ultima silaba.  Puden ser acentuadas con assonantes o consonantes.

 

ROMANCE CAROLINGIO    composociones poeticas del romance de temas del frances Carlo Magno.

 

JARCHA    cacioncilla, la ultima estrofa de la moaxaja. la cual fue poesia arabe, escrita en mozarabe.

 

CUADERNA VIA    otro nombre para el Mester de Clerecia, lo cual significa cuatro versos de rima consonante.  Fue la forma usada en algunas poesias medievales.

 

DON MELON    personaje del Libro de Buen Amor.  El intenta amar a todas las mujeres.

 

SERANILLA    poesia escrita en prosa del Marques de Santillana.  Eran 10.

 

AFRENTA DE CORPES    el casamiento de los Infantes con las hijas del Cid, la traicion,

 

GONZALO DE BERCEO    autor de los Milagros de Nuestra Senora, Esta romance utliza el verso alejandrino.  Fue el primer a escribir su nombre.

 

 

EDAD MEDIA    epoca de los siglos 5 a 14 en lo cual la sociedad se basaba in la iglessia, fue teocentrica.

 

CANTIGA    breve composicion poetica hecha para ser cantada

 

 

Portuguese

Composicao 1

Uma Viagem a Cancun

No verao do 1990 os meus amigos e eu fomos a cidade turistica mexicana de Cancun.  Nos despertamos cedo para pegar o nosso voo, que ia  sair na amana.  Quando chegamos ao aeroporto, vimos o nosso aviao desde a sala de espera.  Esteve na pista recebendo bagagem.  O alto-falante anuncio nosso numero de voo e todos nos nos levantamos com muito excitacao enquanto entramos na fila com outra gente.  Nos sentamos na cabine e se sentia aquela carga eletrica no ar poucos momentos antes do aviao descolar-se.

Tudo o mundo agarrava a sua passagem, e alguns se benzeram.  Estavamos sentados perto das asas do aviao mais se via bem o branco das nuvens e o azul do ceu e do golfo mexicano.  O voo durou por so quatro horas em total;  apesar disso, estavamoos cansados ao chegar la. O aviao aterrou as duas horas da tarde.

Pasamos pela alfandega rapidamente e sem problemas; todos os documentos estiveram em ordem. Nos subimos o onibus.  Se nota em seguida a diferenca da clima do caribe: ar de um cheiro distinto e o sol brilhante ate ficar-se cego.

O onibus nos levou a um hotel de primeira classe; foi um edificio feito no estilo dos piramedes antigos aztecos, com soalhos de marmore.

O porteiro nos saudou e levou nossas malas ao quarto enquanto esperavamos no vestibulo.  Chegou uma empregada que nos trouxe  comida.

Depois fomos a pria. Ela foi tao bela com a sua areia branca e agua azul, que eu nunca tinha visto coisa igual.  O mar foi raso e eu caminhei e nadei na agua. Depois disso, fomos a jantar num restaurante que servia pratos tipicos mexicanos.  Nos fizemos uma boa refeicao e o garcon nos trouxe tudo especial.  Estavamos todos tontos; pois houve vinho a vontade.  Voltamos ao nosso quarto a uma hora de amanha; dormimos bem ate o dia seguinte.

 

Daniel Bruno

 

January – May 1992

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