Blogging For Huffpo, for Free or not to be
The Economics of Blogging and The Huffington
By NATE SILVER
When The Huffington Post announced
earlier this week that it was being acquired by AOL for $315
million in cash and stock, one group felt slighted: a set of unpaid
bloggers for the site, identifying by the Twitter hashtag #huffpuff, which claims
that The Huffington Post has “built a blog-empire on the backs of
thousands of citizen journalists.”
Some analyses in the mainstream media have echoed these sentiments.
“To grasp The Huffington Post’s business model,” wrote
the Los Angeles Times’s Tim Rutten, “picture a galley rowed by slaves
and commanded by pirates.”
I have enormous sympathy for anyone writing about public affairs,
whether as a hobby or as a career. And I’d encourage people to think
very carefully about where they are doing their writing, and what they
are getting paid for it.
The fact is, however, that sentiments like Mr. Rutten’s reflect a
misunderstanding of The Huffington Post’s business model. Although The
Huffington Post does not pay those who volunteer to write blogs for it,
this content represents only a small share of its traffic. And, to put
it bluntly, many of those blog posts aren’t worth very much.
The Huffington Post receives huge amounts of traffic: about 15.6
million page views per weekday, according to Quantcast. But it
also has a huge amount of content accounting for those page views. It
publishes roughly 100 original pieces per day — paid and unpaid — in its
politics section alone. And politics coverage, according
to Arianna Huffington, reflects only about 15 percent of the site’s
How many page views, then, does an individual blog post receive? And
roughly what is it worth to The Huffington Post?
A spokesman for The Huffington Post, Mario Ruiz, said that he was
unable to share numbers more specific numbers than the the ones that
have been released publicly. However, there is enough data in the public
domain that we can make some reasonable inferences.
I will focus this analysis, more specifically, on the politics
section of the Web site. The first step in our calculation is easy. Ms.
Huffington says that politics represents about 15 percent of The
Huffington Post’s traffic; 15 percent of 15.6 million daily page views
is 2.3 million.
Those 2.3 million page views are split between about 100 articles per
day. But the distribution is highly unequal: unpaid blog posts receive
much less traffic than those that The Huffington Post is paying its
staff to write or curate.
No, The Huffington Post — like virtually every other Web site — does
not release page view counts for individual articles. We do, however,
have a reasonable proxy: the number of comments that each post receives.
Articles on the site receive prodigious numbers of comments, and it is
safe to assume that they are fairly strongly correlated with page views.
Early on Friday morning, I counted the number of comments in two
types of Huffington Post articles — those, respectively, in its news
(paid) and blog
(unpaid) feeds. The count covered articles that were published over a
three-day period from Tuesday, Feb. 8 through Thursday, Feb. 10, and
which the site had labeled as politics pieces.
Over the course of these three days, The Huffington Post published
143 unpaid blog posts. Collectively, they received 6,084 comments, or an
average of 43 per article.
By contrast, it published 161 articles in its politics news feed. Not
all of these reflected original reporting, like that of Sam Stein or
Howard Fineman, but they were all articles that The Huffington Post was
paying for in one way or another: whether to reporters, or to editors
who curate and repackage content (sometimes brushing up against fair use guidelines)
generated at other Web sites, or to news wires like The Associated
The articles in its politics news feed received 133,404 comments:
more than 800 per article, and roughly 20 times as many as its blog
posts. Some of the numbers are truly astounding — an article
by Mr. Stein on proposed cuts to energy assistance programs in
President Obama’s budget received almost 13,000 comments just on its
Overall, there were about 140,000 comments between both types of
posts, which received what we estimate, based on Quantcast data, were
about 7 million page views. That means that there were about 50 page
views per comment. (That is a very low number, by the way; the ratio at
FiveThirtyEight is at least an order of magnitude higher, but The
Huffington Post cultivates comments in a way that few other sites do.)
At this 50:1 ratio, the average blog post, which received 43
comments, got about 2,150 page views. This distribution, however, was
highly inequitable. The top-performing
blog post — one by the former Secretary of Labor, Robert Reich — had
received 547 comments (tantamount to about 27,000 page views) as of
Friday morning. By contrast, more than 40 percent of the blog entries
received 5 comments or fewer.
This distribution reflects a classic power law
relationship, with 20 percent of the blog posts accounting for about 80
percent of the comments (and, we are assuming, the traffic). The median
blog post, on the other hand, received just 11 comments, which equates
to only about 550 page views.
Next question: how much are those page views worth? The Huffington
Post had revenues of about $30
million last year, they’ve reported, almost all of which was from
display advertising. This revenue was generated on roughly 4.8 billion
page views over the course of 2010, according to Quantcast data. That
means the average page view was worth a little more than six-tenths of a
cent, or that 1,000 page views were worth about $6.25.
Do the multiplication, and you find that the average blog post —
which we estimate generated a couple thousand page views — was worth
about $13 in advertising revenue. The median blog post, with several
hundred views, was worth only $3 or $4. Even Mr. Reich’s
strongly-performing post was worth only about $170, by our estimates.
I’d imagine there are occasional instances in which blog posts hit
the jackpot and generate thousands of comments and hundreds of thousands
of page views. For the most part, however, they do not move the needle
But even if The Huffington Post makes relatively little money from
these blog posts, could not they pay their bloggers something? Of course
they could — and maybe they should. But the mechanics would get a
If they were to pay a small flat fee, for instance, they might run
into some problems with adverse
selection. An amount like $10, for instance, would provide more of
an incentive to people who were producing relatively low-quality posts
than to someone like Mr. Reich, who could probably command several
hundred dollars for a freelance article if he were so motivated. The
presence of well-known writers like Mr. Reich, also — along with the
armada of politicians and celebrities that blog at The Huffington Post
on occasion — brings up the group average. The expected figures for a
typical piece from a typical freelancer, instead, is probably closer to
the group median: a few hundred page views, worth just a few bucks in
The Huffington Post could instead compensate writers based on a
revenue-sharing scheme; perhaps they are vulnerable to a competitor that
might elect to adopt such a business model. Still, even if The
Huffington Post were to lose most or all of its unpaid bloggers, this
would have a fairly negligible impact on its bottom line. Those posts
make up only about 4 percent of the traffic in their politics section,
according to our estimate.
When I shared a version of these calculations with Mr. Ruiz, the
Huffington Post spokesman, he could not confirm them to this degree of
specificity. But, “I can tell you though that you’re right,” he wrote in
an e-mail. “The large majority of our traffic comes from news, not
I am not a fan of everything that The Huffington Post does, and have
had a couple of disagreements with them over the years — for instance,
over reproducing original photography from fivethirtyeight.com with what
we felt was inadequate attribution.
The site’s decision not to pay volunteer bloggers, however, is far
from unique within the industry. Many popular blogs, ranging from Daily
Kos to Hot Air to Talking Points Memo, also have areas for unpaid,
user-generated content (and some feature it much more prominently than
The Huffington Post does). Even those that don’t let readers blog
generally encourage them to leave comments, and at some sites — ranging
from Marginal Revolution
to Gawker to (I would hope)
FiveThirtyEight — the comments are often every bit as much worth reading
as the articles themselves.
Not all of those sites, granted, have recently sold for nine-figure
valuations. But what about a site that has an 11-figure
valuation: Facebook? Or Twitter? Or Yelp.com?
These sites rely entirely on uncompensated, user-generated content —
content which is valuable because of the engaging technological
infrastructure that their engineers have developed around them
(magnified, sometimes many times over, by network effects).
One reason that The Huffington Post gets a lot of criticism for not
paying its bloggers is because most people think of it as a publishing
company, when really — like Facebook — it is more of a technology
company. Whether the content is paid or unpaid, the site is able to
generate a comparatively large amount of revenue from it because of
things like search engine optimization, and the way that its editors use
their page space: a poorly-performing article will all but disappear
from the site almost as soon as it is posted, while a strong one can
hold its 32-point headline for hours. The Huffington Post, also, makes
itself “stickier” by providing an abundance of links to other articles
and to social networking tools.
It isn’t pretty — the design gives me a headache — but it’s
innovative, and effective. And The Huffington Post is good enough at it
that it finds it profitable to pay for a large number of Associated Press articles, which certainly
do not come cheaply.
Another reason, perhaps, that the “slave ship” allegation sometimes
sticks to The Huffington Post is because there is a discrepancy between
the “250 million unique visitors” that Ms. Huffington pitches
her bloggers on, and the much, much smaller number who have any
realistic chance of encountering, yet alone reading, any given post.
Their median blog post, by our estimate, gets only about 550 page views.
That equates to about 1 in every 450,000 of the unique visitors that
Ms. Huffington says AOL and The Huffington Post will have each month
once they combine forces.
If the case that The Huffington Post were making to its bloggers were
a little more frank, along the lines of the following:
Sure, we’d love for you to post here. And there’s the
chance that your post could do very well. But odds are that only a few
hundred people will see it, and we’ll be lucky to sell enough ads on it
to afford a slice of pizza.
…there might be fewer complaints that it doesn’t pay its bloggers.
But promises of a huge audience are what persuade people to blog at The
Huffington Post rather than somewhere else.
Finally, a bit of advice to bloggers and freelance writers. Having
written for quite a few different publications over the years, I suspect
that many of you vastly overrate the correlation between the number of
visitors that the site you’re writing for receives, and the amount of
traffic or attention that your post in particular will get.
I have written at various points in time, for instance, for ESPN.com
(always for compensation). If the post is featured prominently, it might
generate hundreds of thousands of page views. But if it is consigned to
a backwater — and there are many at sites as large as The Huffington
Post or ESPN — even my parents might not notice that I’d posted anything
I’ve also done a fair amount of uncompensated or undercompensated
writing — there is certainly a time and a place for it, particularly if
you’re trying to establish or re-establish your brand. But look beyond a
site’s traffic numbers and consider how it presents your material and
how prominently it is featured, as well as the sort of audience it is
likely to attract. Being a small fish in a very, very big pond isn’t
always the way to build up a name for yourself, much less to make money
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